Dry mouth (also called Xerostomia) is caused by a decrease in the amount of saliva in the mouth when the salivary glands do not work properly. The salivary glands help keep your mouth moist, which helps prevent tooth decay and other oral health problems
Prescription and over-the-counter medications are the most common cause of dry mouth. In fact, more than 400 medications can contribute to mouth dryness. The most common troublemakers are antihypertensives, antidepressants, painkillers, tranquilizers, diuretics, and antihistamines.
Dry mouth is not a disease itself, but it can be a sign of a serious health condition or may occur when a person is upset or experiencing stress. It also can be caused by radiation therapy and chemotherapy, hormonal alterations, or diseases such as AIDS, diabetes, or Sjögren’s syndrome. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease or those who suffer a stroke may also experience dry mouth. Approximately 30% of persons over the age of 65 are affected by dry mouth.
Dry mouth can cause difficulty in tasting, chewing, or swallowing. It also allows plaque to build up on your teeth faster, leading to a higher risk of cavities. In certain cases, a lack of moisture can make your tongue become very sensitive, causing a condition called burning mouth syndrome. Dry mouth can also lead to bad breath, ulceration or soreness of the mouth, gum disease, and difficulty in wearing dentures.
Saliva helps wash away cavity-causing bacteria, provides enzymes to help digest food, protects teeth from decay by neutralizing harmful acids, and keeps oral tissues healthy. Without saliva you would lose your teeth much faster.
Your dentist will want to know if you have difficulty swallowing or speaking, oral soreness, or a dry throat. Help your dentist to diagnose the problem by paying close attention to the symptoms associated with dry mouth. If you have any questions about this condition, ask your dentist.
There are many treatments that can help ease the symptoms of dry mouth, including over-the-counter saliva substitutes. To ease discomfort, your dentist may also recommend the following:
Brush and floss twice a day
- Chew sugar-free gum
- Avoid alcohol and caffeine
- Avoid smoking
- Drink plenty of water
- Avoid acidic juices (i.e., tomato, orange, grapefruit)
- Avoid dry foods, such as toast or crackers
- Avoid overly salty foods
- See your dentist on a regular and consistent basis